Shree Padre, Colombo

Anula Sirisena is a Sri Lankan housewife from a poor family. She lives in a  village near Kandy. Anula has seven jackfruit trees on her piece of land.  But her jackfruits used to go waste since she didn’t know how to earn money from trees.

About seven years ago Anula’s life changed for the better. She enrolled at the Horticulture Crop Research and Development Institute (HORDI) run by the Sri Lankan government’s Ministry of Agriculture. HORDI taught her to make sambal, chutney and pickle from tender jackfruit, called polos in Sinhala. All three are staple additives in Sinhalese meals.

Anula now runs a microenterprise in jackfruit products under the Samanala brand name. Samanala means butterfly. Her husband, Sirisena, helps her or she hires an extra hand, if needed.  Her neatly packaged and labelled products are retailed at the Ministry of Agriculture’s sales centre in Peradeniya. Anula produces a few other processed foodstuffs too. Her family now earns 50,000 Sri Lankan rupees a year.

Historically, the jackfruit has always enjoyed the status of a holy tree in Sri Lanka.  Named baat gasa or ‘rice tree’ it is said to have saved Lankans from hunger in a crisis. Jackfruit has social and religious connotations in Sri Lanka too. In recent years it is the economic significance of jackfruit that has grown. Since the past 10 years HORDI, funded by the International Centre for Underutilized Crops (ICUC), has trained free of cost, street vendors, housewives and entrepreneurs in minimal processing, dehydration, and bottling technologies.  The institute’s ex-students now manufacture a range of jackfruit products for the domestic and export market. So the jackfruit not only staves hunger, it yields jobs and money.

It isn’t HORDI alone that is training people. Around 14 institutions have pitched in. NGOs and others charge a fee. The Industrial Training Institute (ITI) has in the last 20 years organized 200 workshops and trained 2,000 people in minimal processing of jackfruit.

As a result, Sri Lanka has become the world leader in making jackfruit the key to food security and raising the incomes of the poor. Short duration training and support have empowered rural families. Each household has a few jackfruit trees that the family can’t wholly consume. They now know how to convert their jackfruits into products for sale in urban markets.

Most jackfruit enterprises on the island are not high-end companies but medium scale operators and home industries. This strategy has made jackfruit products affordable for everyone.

According to Dr Subha Heenkenda, Research Officer at HORDI, the total area under jackfruit on the island is 50,000 hectares. “So our country will never starve,” says Dr Subha proudly. On an average, each tree bears 35 fruits of 20 kg each. According to HORDI’s estimates, the island’s total annual production of jackfruit is 1400,000 tonnes.

Streets and markets: “Minimal processing is the easiest business to start,” says Senarath Ekanayake, Research Officer, Food Research Unit in HORDI, the key person behind training in jackfruit value addition and minimal processing.  “You don’t need any heavy investment or machinery. You can start at 3 am, pack your products by 6 am and send your consignment off in the first bus. You don’t make any losses even if you don’t produce anything for a day or two. Unlike pickle, jam or jelly, you don’t have to wait for months.”

Take Manel Sriyani, who trained at HORDI. Manel and her family have been producing four varieties of  ready-to-cook products from tender jackfruit (polos) and unripe jackfruit (kos). They sell around 120 packets per day. A 250-gm pack is priced at Rs 25. Her packets sell in local shops and at the agriculture department’s sales counter. She also supplies to three supermarkets in Kandy.

“We are happy because this is a business we can manage ourselves with occasional help from outside,” says Manel Sriyani, “One of our requirements is a machine to chop the peeled tender jackfruits. This part of our work requires three hours and a lot of energy.” Their small old house is now being remodeled into a concrete home, indicative of the money they have finally managed to earn thanks to minimal processing of jackfruit.

Sri Lanka has around 70 units today which produce ready-to-cook  jackfruit after minimal processing. These packets are sold to vegetable shops and supermarkets. Then, there are hundreds of street vendors who cut jackfruit in front of their customers or sell pre-packed jackfruit. “Vissa, vissa!” you hear vendors shouting in Kandy’s busy market. Vissa means ‘cheap’ and it is freshly cut jackfruit that is on offer.

The jackfruit is cut into three different shapes for three different curries. The cube shape – exclusively meant for polos curry – is the most popular. For polos mellum, tender jackfruit is chopped into small bits. Very few vendors sell jackfruit in large pieces for making cutlets or dunking into biryani.

Antony, 47, who sells freshly cut jackfruit on a cart in Colombo’s Malay Street says this is his family business. He joined his father about 35 years ago. Antony’s team of four begins cutting jackfruit at 5 am. They sell till noon. A kilo of freshly cut jackfruit is priced at Rs 60. On an average they sell around a quintal.  Antony also sells  waraka, a fruity jackfruit and tambili, a large coconut variety for which Sri Lanka is famous. He closes business at noon and begins once again at 3 pm continuing till sunset.

Dried jackfruit:  Sri Lanka has also been very successful in training poorer communities in dehydration, a technology that extends the shelf life of vegetables and fruits up to six months at least. Menike Wijekoon from Rajawella is a recent entrant into the jackfruit value addition business. She used to work at a dolomite factory. Menike decided to switch careers and enrolled for a four-day training programme on dehydration of fruits and vegetables at the Vidhatha Centre run by Sri Lanka’s Ministry of Technology.

After training she invested in a 25 kg capacity drier. Today, her flagship product is dehydrated unripe jackfruit. She also produces dehydrated bitter gourd, brinjal, curry leaves, kohila and ladyfingers. Neatly packed under her brand name, Pradeepa, Menike’s products are also sold at the Peradeniya Sales Centre.

A 200 gm packet of dehydrated unripe jackfruit is priced at Rs 145. This jackfruit can be used to make curry after soaking the dried chunks in water for 30 minutes. But since fresh vegetables are available at a cheaper price, Menike’s clientele consists mainly of non-resident Sri Lankans who pick up her products to take them back to the country they work in.  So Menike could say her business is mainly export-oriented.

One of her interesting products is jack seed powder, globally recognized as a very nutritious food. Sri Lankans use it to make a crispy snack called murukku. A 200 gm packet of Menike’s jack seed powder costs Rs 60. Although sales are not that brisk, Menike says she manages to sell about 50 kg a year of jack seed powder.

The leader in popularizing dehydration technology is the Rural Enterprises Network (REN) started in 2002. REN emerged from a micro-enterprise project of Practical Action, a poverty eradication programme started by the Intermediate Technology Development Group. REN develops micro and small-scale rural enterprises by helping them with a range of business development services. It promotes processed agro-produce under a common brand name, nationally and in global markets.

REN is a pioneer in unripe jackfruit dehydration. Practical Action did a lot of R&D with different types of driers. They have developed low cost driers that run on firewood and sawdust. Electric driers are very expensive. “Jackfruit is one of our products,” clarifies Nilantha Athapattu, a manager with REN. “We have large production units with 200 kg capacity driers and 45 small-scale driers that can dry 20 kg in a batch. Jackfruit dehydration goes on for about eight months.”

People are trained in batches. Each unit consists of five or eight people. Another two or three trainees are responsible for raw material collection. In fact, ordinary village women now produce dehydrated jackfruit and other products at quality acceptable to supermarkets. This is an enviable achievement for REN.

According to Nilantha, each unit procures jackfruit from around 50 households. This means REN must be helping more than 1,500 families earn more from their jackfruit. “There are families who earn between  3,000 and 4,000 rupees a month,” says Nilantha.

Since the last three years, REN has diversified into bottling jackfruit products. There is a training course. Five groups are manufacturing on an average 1,000 bottles per month of polos curry, kos in brine, tender jackfruit in brine, polos mellum and polos sambal.

Unlike REN, Vista Natural Products in Aranayake near Kandy, is trying to sell its dehydrated unripe jackfruit in local markets. This three-year-old unit run by Dr Jagath Elvitigala produces three types of dehydrated jackfruit to match three kinds of kos curries – Kiri Kos, Kos Thambuma and Kos Melluma.

Dr Elvitigala’s unit employs four women and works for three days a week. Freshly peeled jackfruit bulbs are bought thus avoiding the bother of employing labour to do this at the unit.  “Marketing is our biggest bottleneck,” says B.M. Ariyarathna, who is the unit’s manager. “In supermarkets they ask us for discounts up to 30 per cent  and demand extended credit. We are selling to a few restaurants too.”

But the adventurous doctor, who has settled in this village from Colombo, is not ready to give up. He has planted selected grafts of jackfruit on five acres. These trees have now started to yield fruits. “I want to set up the industry here. This way we can achieve quality with our own raw material and hopefully improve our market base.”

Local to global: Companies have not lagged behind. Sri Lanka has about 10 to 12 big companies who have been producing and marketing jackfruit products for over a decade. These are exported to 10 to 15 countries. Their customers are Sri Lankans living and working abroad.

There is no domestic demand for canned or bottled jackfruit products even in local supermarkets. Fresh jackfruit is available at a lower price in local markets.

“When we started our first factory in 1989, we gave priority to jackfruit products. At that time there was huge demand from Asians living abroad,” says Nimal Jayasuriya, managing director of Foreconns Canneries.

But now, he says, the industry is facing two major challenges. “Bottles and tins are very expensive here since they have to be mainly imported. Thai companies are giving us stiff competition in products like tender jackfruit in brine since labour is cheaper there. We are able to retain our market only in our traditional products like polos curry and polos mellum,” says Nimal.

Australia has emerged as a major market for Araliya Exports based in Colombo. “When we started a decade ago, only one or two companies were making jackfruit products. “Today that number has increased to more than10,” says Mailvaganam Rajkumar, managing director of Araliya Exports. “Jackfruit products are very easy to produce and convenient for Western consumers. You just need to heat and eat.”

Araliya’s jackfruit products are exported to Canada, the US, Switzerland and Male Island. Every year exports increase by five to 10 per cent. Their most recent importer is China which is buying polos curry.  “There is good scope for market expansion. But what is lacking is awareness of the nutritional value of jackfruit in the West.”

Interestingly, polos curry is so popular in Sri Lanka that it almost seems to be a ‘national dish.’ Everybody, from roadside restaurants to five star hotels, serves it. Explains an elderly Sri Lankan gentleman: “You place polos curry on the table with other non-vegetarian curries. Your guests will first have polos curry and then the fish or chicken curries.”

Another curry gaining popularity in Australia is Kallu Pol Maluwa. This dish is made with jack seed powder and fried coconut. Like polos curry, it is a traditional Sri Lankan recipe.

It is generally agreed that the commercial polos curries don’t match up to the traditionally made dish. “The taste of the traditional curry made in a few villages is much better. It takes two entire days to prepare polos curry. And it has to be cooked in an earthen pot on a low flame,” says Senarath Ekanayake.

Then and now: Sri Lanka’s jackfruit journey has come a long way since freshly cut jackfruit was first introduced on streets and in markets after 1977, when the economy began to liberalise. Now, according to Wasantha Wijewardhane, a social activist, “Jackfruit attracts more urban consumers because it is very safe unlike other pesticide ridden vegetables. It is slowly attaining the status of a money-spinning crop. It is not uncommon for a jackfruit weighing a kg to sell for Rs 100 in Colombo. Many people now want to plant jackfruit.”

Twenty-five years ago the jackfruit scenario was bleak here. Lorry loads of jackfruit brought from Ratnapura or Badulla were offloaded cheap in the markets of Colombo.

Now farmers have realized that jackfruit fetches money. If one jackfruit is sold in Colombo for Rs 100, the farmer probably makes only Rs 10. But it is still bringing in an income so cutting of jackfruit trees has decreased.

However, training people in minimal processing, dehydration and bottling technologies has yet to reach far- flung villages, says Padma Pushpakanthi, national secretary of Savisthri, a women’s NGO working for jackfruit development. She says in her village, Walapola in Kegalle district, jackfruit which is not consumed by the family just goes waste. “These simple technologies of drying or minimal processing have not reached my village,” she says.

According to Dr Heenkenda, Sri Lanka consumes about 25 to 30 per cent of its tender jackfruit as a vegetable. The minimal processing enterprises – both trained and untrained vendors – have increased the consumption of jackfruit by 10 per cent. This is not a small achievement. “But all said and done,” he says. “Our total consumption will not surpass a paltry 25 per cent.” Wasantha Wijewardane, on the other hand, says probably around 50 per cent of Sri Lanka’s jackfruit is consumed domestically.

Another drawback is that jackfruit is not popular as a fruit. Efforts to do so have been relegated to the backseat. With its considerable inflow of tourists and mushrooming supermarkets, Sri Lanka could make fresh bulb sales popular.  Sweets like jackfruit varatty which Kerala is famous for, or jackfruit papad and sweet papad are unknown in Sri Lanka. Preservation of jackfruit in sugar syrup is somewhat popular.

It is also surprising that Sri Lanka’s processed jackfruit products have not made any inroads into the Indian market. Both in south and north India, Sri Lanka’s polos curry, tender jack in brine, jack seed curry etc would attract buyers.

Today, tender jackfruit and ripe jackfruit are available in Colombo throughout the year. The minimal processing units produce ready-to-cook tender jackfruit for 10 months. They take a two- month gap not because raw material is not available but because it turns out to be expensive.

“There used to be two jackfruit seasons here,” says Sarananda Hewage, a senior horticulture officer. “ The yala season from March to August and the maha season from November to January. But now we get jackfruit through the year in Colombo.”

Sunil, a roadside vendor on the Kandy-Colombo highway, doesn’t close his shop unless he has some emergency to attend to. He always stocks mature jackfruit, which he personally selects and sources from nearby villages. Perhaps it is time the seasonal tag was removed from jackfruit.

We, in India, can learn a lot from Sri Lanka’s experience in using natural resources and doing value addition. It is a tribute to the Sri Lankan spirit that despite internal conflict and turmoil, the island has forged ahead. It has achieved success in the production and marketing of treacle and jaggery, curries from breadfruit and banana flower, jam from wood apple, herbal tea and many other processed products. This is indicative of their enterprising nature and hard work.


Kos kotthu

Unripe jack carpels: 2 kg

Fish: 250 gm

Cabbage: 200 gm

Leeks (tender): 200 gm

Beans: 200 gm

Carrots: 200 gm

Green chillies: 10 g

Pepper powder: 3 gm

Garlic:  25 gm

Crushed chillies: A few

Curry leaves: A few

Onions:  50 gm

Rice:  200 gm  (optional)

Salt: To taste

Method:  Chop the jackfruit carpels into small pieces. Steam carpels for about four to five minutes. Keep this separately. Next steam finely chopped cabbage, bean, leaks and carrots for two minutes. The vegetables have to be steamed separately. Deep fry the fish and cut into small pieces. Add salt and pepper and keep aside.

Heat a little oil in the pan. When the oil is hot add garlic, curry leaves and onions. Once it turns golden brown strain into a pan and add crushed chillies.

Now add pepper powder and salt to the steamed vegetables. If required, add 250 grams of boiled rice.

Finally, add all the ingredients to the boiled jack carpels and mix thoroughly without breaking the pieces. Add the boiled rice as well. Kotthu is now ready.


Jack seed flour: 750 g

Rice flour: 250 g

Sugar: 750 g

Pepper powder: 2 g

Salt: To taste

Method: Heat the jack seed powder in a dry pan on a low fire for a few minutes until it turns light brown. Heat the rice flour too separately in the same manner. Boil the sugar with four cups of water until it melts completely. Remove from the fire, add a little powdered pepper and salt and keep aside a little syrup.

Now mix the jack seed flour and the rice flour keeping aside a small amount. Gradually add the mixed flour to the syrup little by little. Add the syrup left aside as well to make a mixture of thick consistency. Shape into several balls by placing a handful of the mix on the palm and cover each ball with the leftover flour.  Aggala is ready for consumption.

Jack seed flour: Wash the jack seeds and then dry them. Heat the seeds in a pot on a low fire. When the seeds are hot their outer covering should be removed. This needs to be done carefully so that the bran of the seeds is not removed. The seeds should then be powdered with a mortar and pestle or any other apparatus. Two kilos of the seeds yield two kilos of flour. The flour thus obtained should be kept on a low fire for about one hour, stirring continuously.

Recipes documented by: Savistri, Colombo

Resource Persons:  Nanda Udaththawa, Vanitha Srama Nikethanaya

Assistance: K.P. Somalatha, Savisthri

Rising Fruits
Mysore raspberry stars in Hawaii’s 12 trees project. Can this be a model for India?
Shree Padre, Hawaii
The Mysore raspberry hails from Coorg in Karnataka. Dismissed as a thorny wild weed no one would ever dream of cultivating it there. You would be laughed at if you had the temerity to make such a suggestion. But far away in picturesque Hawaii, the Mysore raspberry earns an income for small farmers and has a loyal fan following.“It was the number one choice of 54 chefs here,” says Ken Love, president of the Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers (HTFG) and the moving force behind the 12 Trees Project, an agricultural programme launched in 2005 which has boosted the income of small farmers.Farmers in Hawaii’s Kona region grow one of the most expensive coffees in the world called Kona. It is their main crop but they hardly make any money out of it. Many farmers were abandoning their coffee farms, migrating to cities and selling their fields to developers. The 12 Trees Project sought to reverse this trend. It helped farmers diversify by growing unusual fruits which would find favour with buyers, chefs and consumers.

The outcome has been a range of nutritious fruits which have quietly invaded markets, restaurants and homely dining tables 365 days of the year. Hawaii is a tourist hotspot. Chefs tickled tastebuds by conjuring up irresistible recipes with exotic fruits like cherimoya, fig, grumichama, kumquat, loquat, Surinam cherry, tree tomato and the tropical apricot.

Included in this list are fruits of Indian origin which have won Hawaiian hearts. The Mysore raspberry, though a controversial plant, is made into jam, dunked into smoothies or converted into a gooey syrup for pancakes. The Rangapur lime, Mysore banana and Mysore peach have their share of followers. The Malabar chestnut, whose seeds can be roasted and eaten like cashew nuts, is also relished.

In India we have many unusual fruits which could enhance the earnings of small farmers and provide more choice to consumers. There is kokum and jackfruit. Passion fruit is being grown in the northeast and is making inroads in Kerala and Karnataka. Another rising star is the rambutan which has been introduced in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

There are aspects of the 12 Trees Project in Hawaii which can be creatively put to use in India. Some agricultural scientists believe the next Green Revolution in India will be in horticulture with fruit trees being raised on marginal and wastelands using drip irrigation.

Coffee chimera: “Till the mid-90s, you couldn’t find fruits like abiu, fig, strawberry or guava in our Hawaiian shops,” says Ken Love. “But look now fruits from our 12 Trees Project are found at different times through the year. There is the Surinam cherry, loquat, kumquat, tree tomato, grumichama, tropical apricot, kona lime… sometimes these aren’t enough.”

Aptly called the ‘paradise of the world,’ Hawaii is blessed with fertile volcanic ash which looks like black cotton soil. It has a range of micro-climates, tropical, sub-tropical and temperate, which yield a variety of fruits, some of which grow in the wild.

Kona coffee is cultivated in the mountainous western part of Hawaii and requires heavy labour. Production, harvesting and processing are all done manually. In specialty retail stores, Kona coffee could sell for as much as $50 per pound. But since production costs are high and output is low, the farmer earns very little from it.

A bag of raw coffee sells for around $125. After deducting picking expenses, the farmer is left with only $75! If we subtract the cost of fertilizers and family labour for pruning and weeding, the farmer actually makes a pittance. Ironically, one of the world’s most expensive coffees is a losing proposition!

“Hawaii is very different from the rest of the US,” explains Love. “People here are very rich or very poor. Land value is very high. Most of our farmers have only one to two hectares. It’s hard to make enough money from agriculture.”

Hawaii’s beauty attracts many middle-class families. Some buy coffee farms hoping to settle down to a happy bucolic life and a decent income. It doesn’t take them long to realise that there is no money in coffee farming. By that time, their hard-earned savings have vanished. Their only option is to sell their land to a developer and find a job.

12 Trees Project: “If we don’t make farming profitable, there won’t be any farms left after a couple of decades,” says Love, a journalist who became a farmer. “I lost two of my sons to the city. I don’t want the city to grab my grandchildren now.”He made up his mind to draw up strategies which would help farmers stay out of the red. With the help of the University of Hawaii and friends, he formulated the 12 Trees Project to enhance the income of coffee farms.After consulting 54 of Hawaii’s chefs, fruit buyers and growers, Love and his team identified a dozen fruit trees which could be grown on coffee farms. Priority was given to seasonality and harvesting time while choosing trees so that fruit could be supplied through the year to local markets and farmers would not need to hire labour. A husband and wife team would be able to harvest different fruits at different times of the year all by themselves.

“If you have 10 acres would you prefer to harvest all of that within two months or would you prefer to harvest one acre a month?” asks Love.

The fruit varieties selected were: Cherimoya, fig, grumichama, kumquat, loquat, Mysore raspberry, Poha (Cape gooseberry), pomegranate, Rangapur (Kona) lime, Surinam cherry, tree tomato (tamarillo) and tropical apricot.

Every farm can’t grow all these fruits. It is up to the farmer to choose what works best for him or her. “Figs and loquat are just two examples of fruits that are more profitable than coffee,” says Love. “These fruits have higher value. Based only on fresh fruit sales one can make five to ten times more money.”

At Gerry and Nancy Redfether’s Kawanui Farm on the Big Island, Mysore raspberry and Mysore banana both find favour.

“We love berries,” says Nancy. “We have only two native wild berries, the Ohelo and the Thimble Berry. Both are small, not very sweet. When we found that the Mysore raspberry yields fruit through the year, we were interested. We eat the Mysore banana as a snack. It is sweet and tastes different from our apple banana.”

Love says the Mysore raspberry is a controversial fruit. It is listed as a noxious weed, as an undesirable invasive plant. “It is illegal to plant it outside the Big Island,” explains Love who feels it is really a misunderstood plant species. “The main problem is its thorns, which can make it extremely painful to harvest. The fruit tastes very good, chefs like it. I hope in future a thorn-less strain can be developed.”

Hawaii’s economy is predominantly tourism-driven. So instead of selling a whole lot of a single fruit it is easier to sell a little of different fruits. As a result of the 12 Trees Project, fruits are available throughout the year. You can get jaboticaba for 10 months and mangosteen for eight months. Rambutan takes a break only for a few months. Different varieties of mangoes are grown at different levels, so you can buy mangoes through the year.

Another advantage in Hawaii is its tremendous biodiversity. Kona has 200 varieties of avocados, 200 types of mangoes and 100 kinds of bananas!

Most such families don’t have any domain knowledge of farming. They love the land, but don’t realize the work that goes into making farming successful. They give up. As a result, Hawaii’s traditional coffee farms have been disappearing at a rapid pace.
Teach and earn: Selling this basket of curious fruits to consumers needed inventiveness. Love says information proved to be critical. Informing consumers and buyers about the quality and seasonality of fruit helps in sales. To help farmers explain their new offerings, Love painstakingly created signboards with full information about the fruit. These are downloadable from his website:
Such signboards are now displayed in many stores and farmers markets.“With some of our rare Hawaiian bananas, we found giving chefs and grocery stores their fruit history on a signboard helped increase its value. Once growers are educated about what they have to sell, they in turn educate their customers.” Some Hawaiian bananas are very rare and perhaps only 600 trees are left. Once buyers knew this, they were prepared to pay more.Another strategy Love emphasises is farmer-chef relations. He found most chefs didn’t know when figs would be available or which month they could expect lychees. So he designed seasonal fruit charts which showed which fruit would be available in which month.

“Chefs are always looking for something new to try. Hotels seek that competitive edge. As farmers we can provide that. It is a tool we should use to become more sustainable,” explains Love.

Chefs too pass on information to their customers. Love recalls a funny incident. “To inform customers how a banana looks in its original form, we got one chef to put an entire bunch of bananas on the buffet table. Their customers rushed to get their pictures taken with the bananas

. It was hard to get to the food, actually. When other hotels heard about this, they too started placing bunches of bananas on the buffet table.” More restaurants now source local fruits directly from farmers. Restaurants like Four Seasons, Fair Mount and Mona Kea are using Surinam cherry, fresh figs and Hawaiian bananas. Four Seasons, a popular Hawaiian restaurant, buys 25 per cent of its fruit locally.

Another advantage for Hawaii’s farmers is their strong local farmers’ markets. Though coffee is their main crop, many farmers grow at least four or five minor fruits and make products with them. To stay in the profession they love, these small farmers are striving hard by doing value addition, diversification and earning that extra money by selling their products at farmers’ markets.

Love and his wife Marguerite produce an unbelievable 150 products from a range of minor fruits. Interestingly, they are able to market more than 50 per cent of their products through the Internet to the mainland. Their glass bottles, nicely wrapped in bubble paper and packed neatly in boxes are sent through the postal department! Many small farmers have websites and sell a portion of their products directly through the Internet via mail order.

But Hawaiian farmers have their problems as well. The biggest one is the ban on sending fresh fruits to their mainland. Way back in 1908 inspectors from California spotted a fruit fly in an avocado sent from Hawaii. Ever since, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has prohibited transport of fresh fruit from Hawaii to the mainland. Only processed fruit cans or bottles can be exported to the US.

Another growing headache is fruit imports. Hawaii grows and sells several thousand pounds of avocado. Yet, over a million avocados are imported every year. This results in locally grown avocados rotting. Big business often takes advantage of local farmers.

As a result of ‘buy local, eat local’ campaigns stores do keep local fruits but tuck them away in some dark corner. Says a Kona farmer, “Though our fruits are far tastier, many stores price local fruits exactly half of imported ones. Some other stores hoodwink customers by passing off imported fruits as local.” But stores that genuinely showcase local fruits have seen good sales.

The most recent burning issue in Hawaii is the government’s proposed move to make third party certification mandatory for farmers to sell their produce even in farmers’ market. While the government argues this is a step to ensure food safety, farmers suspect big companies are behind this move. They want to diminish the popularity of farmers markets and subsequently bring small farmers under corporate control.

India’s humble fruits: Across south India, small farms are up for sale. Farm families, driven to the wall, are selling off their historic, traditional farms.In India demand for land for housing, industry and infrastructure is growing. The money a farmer can get by selling his land is much more than what he can earn from growing crops. The cost of labour has also increased.“We too should come up with a master plan similar to the 12 Trees Project. Of course, here the fruits would be different, but the underlying principle could work for our small farms,” says Balachandra Hegde Sayimane, who is a farmer and journalist based in Sirsi, Karnataka.

Some fruits which small farmers could grow easily are jackfruit, kokum (Garcinia indica), a cousin of mangosteen (Garcinia cowa) and passion fruit. Currently, most jackfruit is wasted. (Civil Society, Aug 2010, July & Aug 2011).

There is demand for such fruits. At jackfruit fairs, consumers don’t mind paying a little more for better varieties. At the annual jack fair in Bangalore, members of the Toobugere Jack Growers’ Association made sizable profits by selling fresh jack bulbs. There would be a big domestic and export market for Indian farmers were they to do some minimal processing of jackfruit the way it is done in Malaysia.

Some innovation has already taken place with jackfruit. Recently, Jose Varkey, Corporate Chef of CGH Earth, a chain of 5-star hotels in Kerala, experimented with jackfruit flour. He peeled the unripe fruit, cut it into cross sections, dried it in the oven and then ground the jackfruit into flour in a wet grinder. He used the flour to rustle up more than a dozen dishes like shammi kababs, seekh kababs, koftas, cakes and cookies.

“All these processes which I did at the hotel can be easily mechanized. If jackfruit can be converted into flour, it would have many takers,” he says.

In Hawaii, Marguerite Love said that the incidence of celiac disease is on the rise in developed countries. “Wheat flour and white flour are forbidden for celiac patients. My husband is one. We buy gluten-free coconut or millet flour. One pound costs anything between $6 and $13. Why can’t your country produce unripe jackfruit flour or jack seed flour. We won’t have any hesitation in buying it if the price is competitive,” she says.

Polycorp Pvt Ltd’s bakery section in Bangalore, Beekays, has incorporated jackfruit into its croissant, Danish pastry, cake and muffin selection. Says BS Bhat, managing director, “Jackseed flour can easily replace corn flour or cassava flour.”

Hardikar’s Food Technologies Pvt Ltd in Pune has innovated technology which can produce fine powder from jack carpels. This jackfruit powder can be used for ice-creams and to make desserts.

Ankura Food Processing, a new entrant, is introducing jackfruit granules. “It is a great product. Please ensure no sugar is put into it. We can use it in many ways,” says Chef Jose Varkey.

Jackfruit ice-cream is also catching on. Natural ice-creams of Mumbai and MILMA, a giant milk cooperative in Kerala, are planning to produce jackfruit ice-cream.

What India needs are reliable supply chains, marketing infrastructure and promotion of jackfruit in its hundreds of value-added forms to consumers at home and abroad. In Malaysia, its Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority, (FAMA) has been has been doing this job pretty well.

Kokum and passion fruit: Another indigenous fruit ideal for small farms is kokum (Garcinia indica) which is endemic to the Western Ghats. It has many medicinal applications. Kokum butter is a good cure for upset stomachs and burn injuries. Its sherbet cures pitha dosha (excessive bile secretion). Hydroxy citric acid extracted from kokum has anti-obese, anti-cholesterol properties and has a good export market. (Civil Society, June 2011).Love predicts that kokum can be sold as fresh fruit in India. “I rate it far higher than mangosteen because kokum has a sweet and sour taste and a lot of nutritional value.” The rind of the kokum is used for making syrups. An Indian hypermarket group has already decided to market kokum as fresh fruit.Garcinia cowa, a lesser known cousin of mangosteen, has long shelf-life. Syrup extracted from this fruit has an attractive flavour and colour. It can be used as a beverage and as a cocktail with other beverages.

Another fruit to watch is passion fruit which is being introduced in Kerala and Karnataka. “Passion fruit would grow well in the Western Ghats. In the past five years due to the initiatives of state governments, around 6,000 to 7,000 hectares of passion fruit have come up in the northeastern states. They have started three to four processing centres and plan to supply the beverage to our metro cities,” says Dr PC Tripathi, Principal Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR) at Chettalli in Coorg.

“Unfortunately in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, passion fruit cultivation is still at a nascent stage with no commercial farms coming up. In fact, passion fruit cultivation is more suited to small farms of one or two hectares. Farmers can process the fruit and get additional returns.”

IIHR has recently invented a maroon hybrid passion fruit named Kaveri. It is less acidic and more acceptable to consumers. The Krishi Vijnan Kendra, Gonikoppal, in the Kodagu district of Karnataka, has been offering training in value addition of passion fruit. Passion fruit syrup is popular at home-stays in Kodagu where it is made by many housewives.

Mountain Fruits, a new small-scale company in Kerala that produces passion fruit syrup without chemical preservatives, is probably the only one of its kind in south India. According to George Kurian, its proprietor, “Passion fruit is an ideal crop for organic farmers in high range areas. A healthy tree can bear up to 2,000 fruits per year. Our company plans to open direct procurement centres in Idukki district and the neighbouring high range districts of Kerala and Karnataka.” Mountain Fruits is offering `20 per kg of passion fruit to farmers.

Dr LC Soans, a leading grower of fruit at Moodabidri, in Karnataka, has introduced several exotic fruits like the rambutan to southern Karnataka. He agrees new fruits need value addition and marketing strategies for farmers to earn a better income.

In Kerala, small farmers are showing an interest in growing fruits of Malaysian origin like mangosteen, rambutan, pulasan and durian. Growing conventional crops earns them very little money. There is also the high cost of labour. Some nurseries now specialise in marketing their own selections that promise better sized fruits.

Osmo-dehydration, a process by which the fruit retains its original flavour, is also likely to catch on. For the first time in India, the PeePee Group, based in Chennai, is all set to launch dehydrated pineapple, papaya and amla.

Osmo-dehydrated jackfruit standardized at IIHR shows promise for the domestic and export market. Says Dr Tiwari: “If we exploit this technology correctly, we can give fruits and vegetables a different dimension. These fruits can be eaten as snacks, for breakfast or at tea-time instead of junk food being served.”

“If you take an unusual fruit and create a market for it and value added products, you become a leader in the industry. It requires more work in the beginning but the rewards are much greater than just trying to sell everything everyone is selling,” says Love.

Farm to table: Though Hawaii and India are miles apart, there is learning that can be shared. Love advocates more interaction between farmers and chefs in India. “Food at Indian 5 Star hotels is very, very good and of ultra high quality. A large number of foreigners who stay at these hotels love Indian food and are keen to eat local. They don’t want to go to the Taj West end in Bangalore and be served the same food they get in London or Chicago. What impressed me most about the Taj was that they put chikoo, java plum and Indian figs on the breakfast buffet. People would try a piece of chikoo then go back and get more and more. It just requires some education. We did that in Hawaii with signboards.”

“Whether they admit it or not, some chefs need education about unusual fruits. Similarly, some farmers need to increase the quality of their produce. The bottom line is to increase communication so that both farmers and chefs can win. Hotel visitors would then have a memorable dining experience,” says Love.

“Farmers must learn to communicate better with each other. We should learn to work together so that we have less competition with the types of crops and the prices we sell them at. We need to delight in each others culture and history, not fear it. One of the best ways to achieve this is to share information about what we all have in common. We must continue to strengthen our agriculture worldwide by supporting our local farmers and refusing to buy many imported goods.“


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